Notes by Autumn Light

On Hebrew, English, translation, editing, and more—by Jonathan Orr-Stav

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Which commandment was the most difficult for the Israelites to accept when they received the Torah at Mt. Sinai?

As the Book of Exodus itself suggests, it was the probably the second:

(in Square Hebrew script: לא תעשה לך פסל וכל תמונה)

—i.e. ‘Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness’

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Is it risky to study to become a book translator since machine translation is becoming increasingly accurate?

A surprising number of translators still parrot the old line (as I did myself, as recently as 2015), that “machines will never substitute humans in translation.”


I beg to differ. In answer to the above question—yes, it is risky: human translators, I’m afraid, are about to go the way of farriers and saddle-makers a century ago.

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According to the Bible, did all Old Testament prophets perform miracles?

Broadly speaking, no. There is a clear difference between prophets in Judah/Judea, and those in Israel (the northern kingdom).

The Judahite prophets—such as Nathan and Isaiah—were dour, upper-class members of the court, who served effectively as the kingdom’s ombudsmen. They restricted their activity to emerging from time to time when the king did something particularly egregious and castigating him for inciting God’s wrath.

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Where do the swear words in Modern Hebrew come from? Do any of them originate in older stages of Hebrew?


As a student many years ago, I shared a workspace for a while with a Syrian student by name of Mahmood.

He was wary of me at first when he learned that I’m Israeli, but mellowed when he saw that I bore him no ill will. He only really relaxed, however, when I revealed to him that most of our swear words in Hebrew are Arabic.

‘Really?’ he asked, , intensely curious. ‘Give me some examples.’


So I told him of some of the obvious ones, such as k** u****k and in**-abuk (this is a family website, so I won’t spell them out), and more flowery ones, such as yaḥreb beitak. I also told him that there are Arabic expressions that we use not for swearing, but just as slang—such as tizzi**bi.

His eyes widened. ‘You guys say tizzi**bi? That means “the backside of the Pr***et”!’, he said, not knowing whether to be shocked, or pleased at the familiarity.

‘Oh, yeah…’ it dawned on me. ‘Sorry—it didn’t occur to me. We just use it without working out what it actually means. But we don’t use it as a swear word. We use it to mean the middle of nowhere, the back-of-beyond…’

He was fascinated. ‘What else?’ he asked me.

‘Well, we say kibb***mat—although that’s a very mild swear word, like Dammit! in English. What does it mean, by the way?’

‘I have no idea,’ he said to me. ‘It sounds like “Throw me away, dead” or something. Must be something specific to Palestinian Arabic…’

It was only months later that I discovered, to my embarrassment, that kibb***mat is not Arabic, but Russian (I should have known, since my grandmother was Russian—but she died when I was fifteen, and anyway, it’s not something that would come up in conversation with one’s grandmother). And so, too, is its cousin (which really is a swear word), Yat****mat (apologies to all Russian-speakers in this forum)…

All of which goes to show that most of modern Hebrew swearing is mostly Arabic, with the occasional Russian (dating back to the original Zionist settlers over a hundred years ago). With the exception of regular standbys such as ben-z***h, and lekh tiz***en, and yimaḥ shmo, very few swear words are actually Hebrew.

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What does the Leviathan symbolize in the Hebrew Bible?


The Leviathan (לויתן) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible on only a handful of occasions—in the Books of Isaiah, Psalms, and Job—as a generic sea monster, as a way of demonstrating God’s power in being able to create such a creature and to ‘play’ with it as though it were a pet:

לויתן זה, יצרת לשחק בו (Psalms 104:26)

(‘there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein’)

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What are things that should be avoided in academic writing?

[A2A] Are you seated? Then we’ll begin.

Here are some the major hazards that I tell my clients to look out for and avoid:

  • Overly verbose and latinate language
  • Non-idiomatic language
  • Ambiguous wording
  • Spiral writing
  • Mowing the lawn twice
  • Lost subject or object

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Please: parsha no more

It’s a common refrain in Jewish synagogues throughout the English-speaking world:

How would you answer this question on the Parsha

View this week’s Parsha

Family Parsha 

The Parsha Experiment – Shoftim: Is This Just A Boring Parsha?

—and it drives me (and no doubt every Israeli) around the bend every time I encounter it.

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