Prior to the First Exile of the Judean aristocracy to Babylon in 586 BCE, Israelites referred to themselves as ‘Hebrews’ (ivrim – עברים)—e.g.:
- And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew [Gen. 14:13]
- And there was there with us a young man, an Hebrew [Gen. 41:23] when Moses was grown, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he spied an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew [Exodus 2:7]
- And if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee [Deut. 15:12]
- That every man should let his manservant, and every man his maidservant, being an Hebrew or an Hebrewess, go free [Jer. 34:9]
- And he said unto them, I am an Hebrew; and I fear the Lord, the God of heaven, which hath made the sea and the dry land [Jonah 1:9]
Many years ago, I was working for a while as ‘Deputy Food Manager’ (i.e., ‘the guy who schlepps the big boxes from the delivery platform at the back to the walk-in fridge’) at a kibbutz in southern Israel.
The kibbutz members frequently complained about the lack of variety of our meat offerings (basically, chicken, turkey, or beef)—so one day the Food Manager took me for a ‘research trip’ to another kibbutz in the southern Negev—Lahav, some forty km to the east, where, it was rumoured, members were very happy with their food.
The ‘research trip’ was a sham—he and I, and everyone else already knew why the Lahav members were happy with their food: they had pork alternatives almost every day, thanks to their pig farm.
Broadly speaking, no. There is a clear difference between prophets in Judah/Judea, and those in Israel (the northern kingdom).
The Judahite prophets—such as Nathan and Isaiah—were dour, upper-class members of the court, who served effectively as the kingdom’s ombudsmen. They restricted their activity to emerging from time to time when the king did something particularly egregious and castigating him for inciting God’s wrath.
Elohim was the name of God for the Israelite (northern) tribes.
IHVH was the name of the God of the Judeans (southern tribe).
Since both religions were based on the belief in a single, Creator, God, the two traditions were knitted into one when the refugees of the northern kingdom were absorbed into Judea following the destruction of the northern kingdom by the Assyrians around 725 BCE, at the instruction of the Judean King Ezekiah.
Join me on Sunday, February 19, 2017 2:30 pm, at Congregation Emanu-El synagogue, Victoria, B.C., for the second talk in its series Sketches of Israel and the Middle East, when I address the topic Arabic Hebrew: An Introduction to How Modern Israelis Really Speak.
(Can’t make it that day? State your interest in attending the talk on another occasion (and preferred day and time) in our online poll.
The Bahai Temple:
Too bad that it took a foreign group to conceive and design it. Israeli architecture is not so classically inclined 😦
(Originally written in reply to a question at Quora.com)
Just to be clear: no Jews became slaves in Egypt, just as no Canadians died in the Black Plague of the 14th century.
This is indeed one of the conclusions that Yitzhak Ben-Zvi—a historian and ethnographer who would later become Israel’s first President—reached from studies of the names and traditions of many Palestinian villages and Bedouin communities.
The Quran’s version of the story is reflective of the conventional practice in the Middle East (and throughout the world) of primogeniture—i.e., succession by, or preference of, the first-born son.
My uncle Uri on way to work in the avocado plantation, 1968
I can’t claim to have grown up on a kibbutz, but I do have the benefit of experiencing life as a child on a kibbutz and elsewhere (several other elsewheres, as it happens), so I can gauge how it was by comparison.