Yes, there is: it’s determined by the binyan (construction) of the verb.
There are seven binyanim, each with its characteristic pattern of vowels. Their names reflect the vowel pattern in the past tense (3rd person singular, masculine)—thus:
The appropriate binyan of a verb is determined by whether it is a simple verb, or one that refers to an action to or on something else; or a manipulation of an object or a person; or a continuous or repeating operation—or the passive corollary of any the above. (For more information on that, see my post on How do I know if a verb in hebrew is pa’al type, pi’el type, or other?)
—such as I’m going to+verb, or more+<adverb/adjective> instead of <adverb/adjective>+more?
Answer: Actually, I would argue that modern Hebrew is fairly resistant to English grammatical forms—mainly because its grammar is much simpler (comprising the equivalent of past simple, present simple, and simple future), with no mechanisms for emulating tenses such as present perfect (e.g. I have gone) or present continuous (e.g. going) or conditional (would go).
As a result, the sample constructions that you suggest — e.g. going to <verb> and more <adjective> (instead of <adjective> more) are not only uncommon, but indicative of poor Hebrew usage.
The short answer is that you fairly quickly develop an intuitive sense, from hearing (or reading) how other people use that verb. But if you’re looking for a broad rule of thumb to get you going, here it is:
- If it’s a simple, straightforward verb that doesn’t operate ‘on’ anything and just minds its own business, it’s probably pa’al — e.g. ani holekh, aokhel, ro’eh (walk/go, eat, see).
- It has certain passivity to it, it may be niph’al — e.g. nimtza (is present); nir’eh (seen); nistar (he/it is hidden); norah (he/it was shot). The passive corollary to pa’al.
- If it involves a certain amount of manipulation, it’s probably pi’el — e.g. le’abed et haadamah (work the land); leḥaleq et hazman (divide the time). Also almost invariably the binyan of choice for Hebraized verbs of foreign origin — e.g., letalphen (to phone); lesamess (to SMS); lefabreq (to fabricate).
- If it involves actually operating something that would otherwise be inanimate or work some other way, it’s hiph’il — e.g. lehaph’il et ham’khonah (operate the machine); lehatnia et ha’oto (to start the car).
- If it relates to the object at the receiving end of hiph’il: if it is clearly a passive thing that is operated on or manipulated by something else, it’s probably huph’al — e.g., hamekhonah huph’alah (the machine was operated); hatziur mutxag bagaleriah (the painting is exhibited at the gallery).
- If it involves a certain repetition, reflection, or continuous action, it’s hitpa’el — e.g., lehistovev bareḥov (wander around the street); hakadur mitgalgel (the ball rolls); lehitpaél mehamar’ot (to express wonder at the sights); hadli mitmalé bemaim (the bucket is filling up with water).
- Last but least: pu’al, which is the passive corollary to pi’el — e.g. dubar (it was spoken/discussed); supar (it was told). It is the rarest of all the binyanim, and somewhat literary or refined.
Here’s a summary table that you can cut out and keep:
||okhel אוכל (eat)
ro’eh רואה (see)
||passive corollary of pa’al
||ne’ekhal נֶאֶכָל (eaten)
nir’eh נִראֶה (seen)
||involving manipulation of something
||me’abed מְעָבֵּד (processing)
meḥaleq מְחָלֵק (dividing)
||passive corollary of pi’el
||dubbar דוּבָּר (spoken)
turgam תוּרְגָם (translated)
||involving operation of other things, people
||lehaph’il להַפְעִיל (to operate [machinery])
lehadliq הִדְלִיק (to turn on)
||passive corollary of hiph’il
||hutzat הוּצָת (lit, sparked)
||involving repetition, reflection, or continuous action
||mitgalgel מתגלגל (rolling)
mitmalé מתמלא (filling up)
*Binyan in this context means “construction.”