Q&A: Does the Bible state that the original land of Israel extended into Iraq and Egypt?

Actually, no. The Book of Deuteronomy is very explicit on the issue, with the expression avor et-hayarden el-ha’aretz asher Adonai eloheinu noten (‘pass the [River] Jordan to the land which the Lord our God has given’) repeated (in various permutations) a dozen times (2:29 / 3:27 / 4:21, 23, 26 / 9:1 / 11:31 / 12:10 / 27:2,4, 12 / 30:18).

In Deut. 3:27, Moses is told explicitly that he will not pass the River Jordan and see the Promised Land with his own eyes, as punishment for not keeping the unruly Children sufficiently in line during their forty years in the wilderness (4:21: ‘Furthermore the Lord was angry with me for your sakes, and sware that I should not go over Jordan, and that I should not go in unto that good land’).

Lest there be any doubt on the matter, in chapter 3, there is a complex explanation that the lands of Og the king of Bashan, and Sihon king of the Amorites—which lie east of the Jordan and Sea of Galilee—will be given to the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh as war booty (since Og and Sihon decided to fight the Israelites instead of allowing them to pass through)—but only for the fighting men. Their women, children, and cattle must live in the Promised Land, west of the Jordan:

your wives, and your little ones, and your cattle, ( for I know that ye have much cattle,) shall abide in your cities which I have given you;
until the Lord have given rest unto your brethren, as well as unto you, and until they also possess the land which the Lord your God hath given them beyond Jordan: and then shall ye return every man unto his possession, which I have given you

Deut. 3:19–21

So clearly the Promised Land is only what lies west of the River Jordan.

That said, God (via Moses) does make this one promise:

כי אם-שמור תשמרון את-כל-המצוה הזאת, אשר אנוכי מצווה אתכם–לעשותה: לאהבה את-יהוה אלוהיכם, ללכת בכל-דרכיו–ולדובקה-בו. כג והוריש יהוה את-כל-הגויים האלה, מלפניכם; וירשתם גויים, גדולים ועצומים מכם. כד כל-המקום, אשר תדרוך כף-רגלכם בו–לכם יהיה: מן-המדבר והלבנון מן-הנהר נהר-פרת, ועד הים האחרון–יהיה, גבולכם.

‘For if ye shall diligently keep all these commandments which I command you, to do them, to love the Lord your God, to walk in all his ways, and to cleave unto him; 23 The will the Lord drive out all these nations from before you, and ye shall possess greater nations and mightier than yourselves.
Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours: from the wilderness and Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the uttermost sea shall your coast be.

Deut. 11:22–24

But throughout its history (including today), the Israelites never reached that level of propriety, so they were never deemed worthy of this prize.

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