Q: When did the term “Jews” come to refer to the Jewish people as opposed to “Israelites” or “Hebrews”?

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Image source: myjewishlearning.com

Answer: probably with the fall of the (northern) kingdom of Israel and the scattering of its population by the Assyrians in 722 BCE, when Judea became the sole sovereign Israelite entity.

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Are there any regional accents or dialects in Modern Hebrew? As in, “Oh, she sounds like she’s from Ashkelon” or “he has a noticeable Haifa accent”

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When she’s relaxed, or chatting with her childhood friends, my wife—bless her cotton socks—lapses into her native Holon singsong lilt, which I love, and sometimes tease her about. (Only in Holon can ken! [yes!] sound like a three-syllable word…).

When I want to pull someone’s leg, I deliberately exaggerate my maaaatayim (‘two hundred’), because that’s how Jerusalemites are supposed to sound.

And native kibbutzniks and moshavniks from the Jezreel Valley seem to be particularly good at rolling their /r/s in the throat (which I really envy).

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Is there any specific set of instructions on how to Romanize Hebrew?

The Square Hebrew / SimHebrew™ Converter will convert any Square Hebrew text into Roman characters (and back again), with full fidelity with regard to spelling and distinction between seemingly homophonous characters:

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As with French, German, Italian, or any other Roman-based language, however, you would have to bear in mind that certain characters have different phonetic values compared with English:

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What is “God is the greatest” in Hebrew?

Recently I was asked how How do you say “The Gates of Hell shall not prevail” and “no weapon formed against me shall prosper” in Hebrew?, and I replied that the expression the Gates of Hell is inherently foreign to Hebrew, because it is absent in the Jewish tradition.

The expression God is the greatest is similarly alien to the Jewish tradition, for at least two reasons:

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How do you say ‘The Gates of Hell shall not prevail’ and ‘no weapon formed against me shall prosper’ in Hebrew?

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Certain expressions are inherently foreign to Hebrew, because they are absent in the Jewish tradition. Gates of Hell is one of them: the notion of Hell as a terrible underworld of fire and brimstone is really founded on the Greek idea of Hades, with subsequent embellishment by the Christian Church during the Middle Ages (and Dante, of course), in a bid to keep congregants in line.

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Q: Why does the sculpture of Moses have horns?

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ומשה לא ידע כי קרן עור פניו | and Moses did not know that his face’s skin shone

This is the result of a misunderstanding (and therefore mistranslation) of the Hebrew (Exodus 34:29):

ויהי ברדת משה מהר סיני ושני לחת העדת ביד משה ברדתו מן ההר ומשה לא ידע כי קרן עור פניו בדברו אתו

The bolded text in Hebrew above, transliterated, says: uMoshé lo yada ki qaran or-panav bedabro itto—meaning ‘and Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone as he spoke with him.’

The word qaran is a verb form of qeren, which can mean either ‘ray’ (of light), or ‘horn’.

Some Latin translations chose—either deliberately, or out of ignorance—to interpret it as ‘horn’, when in fact, what is meant in the original is that his face glowed (presumably as a result of exposure to something during his meeting with God on Mt. Sinai).

What does Nathaniel mean in Hebrew?

In Hebrew it is Natan’el (the i was inserted in the European version, for easier pronunciation), meaning ‘God has given’.

Incidentally, the name Jonathan (Hebrew, Yonatan) means the same, only with the Judean contraction for the Lord’s name—Jo.

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(Originally written in reply to a question at Quora.com)